THE HISTORY OF COMPUTERS
 

- Computer is nothing but a calculating machine. It converts each part of the data into just '1' and '0' and thereby processing the task. That"s the reason why it's called a "Computer"- that which computes. The earlier form of a computer is an ABACUS. An ABACUS which is made of spikes and balls is found in the Sumerian civilization (in the present day Iraq).

- ABACUS which is the earliest calculating machine by the humans is found around 2,000 BC in Iraq. As a mathematician called John Napier has invented the logarithm technique to simplify the calculations, the initiative for inventing the calculating devices moved further. A French mathematician named Blaise Pascal has invented a calculating machine in 16th century paving the way for computers.

- Charles Babbage (18th century)- an English Mathematician is often considered as the 'father of the computer'. Babbage has tried various techniques to develop a machine that can perform mechanical calculations. In the machine invented by Charles Babbage, the data is fed into the system through punched cards and the results could be stored in the machine. But the machine is so weak that it has a memory of less than a KILO BYTE!

- A scientist called Alan Turing has moved the computer to a further level during the 19th century. He invented a digital computing machine widely called as the 'Turing machine'. However the world's first program controlled computer was invented in 1946 by Konard Zuse. It's named as 'Z3'.

- Initially the computers worked on the Vacuum tubes and were then replaced by the Transistors. The Transistors were now replaced by the Integrated Circuits. Based on the working of the computerů these might range from a Personal Computer (PC) which can satisfy the computing needs of an individual to a Super Computer which is used in the areas such as defense that need complex calculations.

- Though a computer needs many components to work in perfection three of them are notable. The Microprocessor which analyses the data received and processes it into the desired output. The memory which either hold certain softwares that can't be changed (Read Only Memory- ROM) or which can be changed according to the instructions (Random Access Memory - RAM). The Input and Output devices which supplies and receives the data from the computer.

- The invisible data components of a computer can be termed as a software. It is further divided into the 'System Software' (or the Operating System) which sets the computers on track to interface with the users. Besides the 'Application Software' performs certain tasks as per the requirements of the consumer. For example 'Windows 8' is an example for System Software while 'Adobe Photoshop' is an example for the Application Software.