Penguins
 

- Penguins are the flightless creatures which live mostly in the cold temperatures of Southern Hemisphere. The oldest fossils of penguins denote their habitat on earth for more than 60 million years. Though they might have the slightest ability to fly in those days... they could no more fly. Their wings have turned into flippers!

- The flippers of a penguin facilitate it to swim swiftly. They even help them while defending themselves during a fight. Besides, on a hot day, they would spread their flippers wide so as to let the heat pass away from their body. With the help of these flippers, the penguins could swim at a speed of about 30 kilometers per hour in the sea.

- The color of penguins would protect them from their predators while swimming. The black color over their spine would appear them to be a part of the dark waters. The white color over their stomach would make an impression of sunlight from beneath the sea. Such a way of camouflage is called 'counter shading'.

- Penguins spend a considerable amount of time in sea, fishing. They eat tiny creatures like fish, shrimp, squid that live in the sea. But they love to feed on fish. Creatures like penguins that depend primarily on fish are called - piscivorous!. Penguins have a spike like organs in their mouth that would help them in catching the fish.

- As the penguins spend much time in the sea, considerable amount of sea water gets into their stomach. But they have a unique system to get the excess salt out of their bodies. A 'Supraorbital gland' was located just above their eyes. These glands would excrete the concentrated salt fluids through its beak. - There are about 18 species in the penguins. The Macaroni penguins form much of the penguin population. However a species called 'The Emperor penguins' are much popular due to their size. The Emperor penguins could grow up to 4 feet. The smallest penguin is called 'The Blue penguin' which is only around 16 inch in height.

- The feathers of the penguins help them to be in warmth. Besides they have a gland called the 'Preen gland' which secretes an oil that's spread over their feathers. The oil would make the penguin waterproof while in the sea. Once in a year, the penguins shed their feathers and gain new feathers. This process is called the 'Catastrophic molt'.

- Thousands of penguins come together for the breeding season. Some penguins create nests with pebbles to hatch their eggs. Though there would be millions of penguins in the colony, every mother penguin could hear the sound of her offspring!