Machu Picchu was a heritage site that lies in the country of Peru (South America). It was a city that was built on a mountain peak, which is almost 8000 feet in height. It was built by a civilization called the INCAS. This was built around 1450 A.D as an estate for their emperor named 'Pachacuti'.
In the 15th century, the Spanish has arrived the Inca Empire. There were fierce battles between the Spanish and the Incas. With the execution of the last Inca emperor ' Tupac Amaru', the Inca Civilization has come to an end. Moreover the disease of small pox has wiped off the population of Machu Picchu rapidly.
The world didn't get a chance to know about Machu Picchu since then. It was only in the year of 1911, an American historian called Hiram Bingham has brought it to the notice of the world. Soon it has become the most visited tourist place in Peru!
The city was built in a secluded place so as to evade the eyes of the enemy. Three sides of the mountain was covered by a river called 'Urubamba'. Moreover the high mountain cliffs that surrounded the Machu Picchu make it almost invisible.
The Hill sides leading to the entrance of the city has been terraced. In other words, the slopes of the mountain were cut in the form of steps. These terraces provided multiple benefits for the Incas. They have let them easy to counter the enemy who climbs them. They have prevented land sliding and soil erosion- Further, they have even provided a perfect place for farming! The terraces were built of pebbles and sand so as to capture most of the rainfall.
Almost 170 buildings were present in the city of Machu Picchu. The eastern section of the city was filled with the residential homes and the western part constituted of structures built for religious purposes. The constructions of Machu Picchu prove to be a marvel in architecture.
The Incas has not used any tools, wheels or animals for these constructions. They dragged huge boulders uphill, chiseled them with bare rocks and fixed them together. The rocks were set one upon another with such a precision that, even a blade can't pass through them. They have even stood the test of time by withstanding numerous earthquakes.
Inca is also known for its Temple of Sun and a Sundial. The Sundial was called as the 'Inti Watana stone'. It showed the precise movement of the sun over the sky. It even indicated the Summer solstice (JUNE 21st) and Winter solstice (DECEMBER 21st).